Coat of arms of Madrid
In 1561 King Philip II made Madrid the capital of one of the largest empires in history. Spain was for centuries the most important supporter of the Roman Catholic Church and Madrid retains some memory of these links like this modern papal coat of arms with the symbol of the City of Madrid.
Historical Madrid centres around Plaza Mayor. Although most of the buildings are relatively modern, the net of the streets derives from the old city. In this area is the church of San Gines which dates back to the XIth century, but was almost entirely rebuilt in 1645 (my background shows its elegant bell tower). On the fašade there is a large (recent) coat of arms of Pope Innocent VI who ruled the Papal State from Avignon in 1352-1362.
Nuestra Senora de la Almudena
Another recent papal coat of arms can be found on the fašade of Nuestra Senora de la Almudena, the (not yet finished) cathedral of Madrid facing the Royal Palace. The coat of arms is in honour of John Paul II.
The area south of Plaza Mayor has another, more interesting evidence of the links between Spain and the Papal State. In Calle del Nuncio there is the XVIIIth century Nunciature (the Embassy of the Pope's diplomatic representative in another country) which is still decorated with the chequered eagle of Pope Innocent XIII.
Coats of arms of the Royal Family: (left) Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales; (right) La Vera Cruz
Obviously Madrid has many coats of arms of the kings of Spain and actually most of the churches are decorated by royal coats of arms. The comparison between the two coats of arms shows the addition to references to Italian families, namely the Farnese (on the left) and the Medici (on the right), both extinguished in the mid XVIIIth century and whose rights were inherited or claimed by Philip V of Spain.