1876-1962, English historian; son of Sir George Otto Trevelyan. Educated at Cambridge, he became professor of modern
history there in 1927 and was master of Trinity College from 1940 to 1951. He was a master of the so-called literary
school of historical writing, and his reaction against 'scientific' history has had tremendous influence. He did not,
however, ignore the scientific aspects of historical scholarship; rather he asserted that the historian must elucidate his
subject through imaginative speculation, based on all possible evidence, and present it by means of highly developed
literary craftsmanship. His most ambitious works are an extended study of Garibaldi (3 vol. *, 1907-11) and a history of England under Queen Anne (3 vol., 1930-34). He is perhaps better known for
his one-volume History of England (1926), his British History in the Nineteenth Century (1922), and England under the Stuarts (1907). Other works include biographies of John Bright (1913), Lord Charles Grey (1920), his father, Sir George Otto Trevelyan (1932), and Lord Grey of Fallodon (1937); The English Revolution, 1688-1689 (1938); English Social History (1942; pub. in an illustrated version in 4 vol., 1949-52); and An Autobiography and Other Essays (1949).
(from The Columbia Encyclopedia)
(*) Garibaldi and the Defence of the Roman Republic; Garibaldi and the Thousand; Garibaldi and the Making of Italy.
The excerpts were chiefly taken from the central chapters of the book:
Chapter VI: The Republic, Mazzini, and the Powers - Oudinot advances on Rome
Chapter VII: The Thirtieth of April
Chapter VIII: Garibaldi in the Neapolitan Campaign - Palestrina and Velletri, May 1849
Chapter IX: The Third of June - Villa Corsini
Chapter X: The Siege of Rome, June 4-29
Chapter XI: The Last Assault, June 30 - Fall of Rome - Departure of Garibaldi
The third part of this chapter as well as:
Chapter XII: The Retreat I - Rome to Arezzo - Escape from the French, Spaniards and Neapolitans
Chapter XIII: The Retreat II - From Tuscany to the borders of San Marino - through the Austrian Armies
Chapter XIV: San Marino and Cesenatico
Chapter XV: The Death of Anita
Chapter XVI: The Escape of Garibaldi
Chapter XVII: The Embarkation (for Elba and Piedmont)
were entirely omitted.
Occasionally the original text was slightly amended to take care of the missing paragraphs.
The following pages contain the most important locations mentioned in the text:
Villa Pamphilj/Arch of Acqua Paola (Deep Lane)
Villa Corsini/Il Vascello/San Pancrazio
Porta San Pancrazio/Janiculum/Villa Spada
Porta Portese/The Walls of Pope Urban VIII
Villa Savorelli (Casino del Giardino Farnese)
San Pietro in Montorio
Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1849 (from a contemporary print)
Giuseppe Garibaldi's first years
Giuseppe Garibaldi was born at Nice, in a house by the sea shore, on July 4, 1807, as a subject
of the great Emperor. On Napoleon's fall he became a subject of the restored royal house of Piedmont.
The inhabitants of Nice were in part French and in part Italian. Garibaldi's family was Italian
having come from Chiavari, beyond Genoa, about thirty years before he was born.
In South America
Having made the ports of Europe too hot to hold him, Garibaldi disappeared from the Old World
for twelve years (1836-48) to reappear famous when next his country had need of him.
Back in Italy
Driven out of Milan, the Austrians had fallen back into four great fortresses, Verona, Mantua, Legnago and Peschiera, which guarded the mouth of the Brenner Pass which ensured communication between Italy and Austria. On July 3, Garibaldi offered his sword to King Charles Albert but his services were refused. On July 25 the royal forces were defeated by the Austrians, who in a matter of days occupied again Milan and forced the king to ask for an armistice. The Austrians had recovered all their Lombard and Alpine territories with the exception of Venice where Daniele Manin had proclaimed the resurrection of the Venetian Republic.
Events in Rome
Garibaldi and his followers after a failed attempt to raise the population of the Alpine valleys in November 1848 reached Bologna where they received a warm welcome; the Papal government led by Pellegrino Rossi let them in as they wanted to reach Venice, besieged by the Austrians. But on November 15 Rossi was murdered in Rome, the Pope felt threatened and escaped along the Appian Way to Gaeta in Neapolitan territory. A Provisional Government led on February 8, 1849 to the proclamation of the Roman Republic. Garibaldi formed a legion with many recruits coming from Piedmont, Austrian Lombardy and Venetia.
King Charles Albert's defeat
On March 14, 1849 King Charles Albert of Piedmont denounced the armistice and gathered his forces for a last rush on Milan, but his opponent, General Radetzky, was better prepared than he. Crossing into Piedmontese territory, the Austrians won the decisive victory of Novara where brave fighting and bad generalship distinguished the Italian army. Charles Albert had vainly sought death in the battle. To obtain better terms for his country he abdicated the throne. Before that summer was ended, he had died in a Portuguese cloister, his heart broken for Italy. His son, young Victor Emmanuel, saved Piedmont from conquest, partly through the assistance of very serious threats made by France against Austria, partly by consenting to abandon for the time the Democratic parties in the rest of Italy. Austria insisted that he should leave Venice to its fate by the withdrawal of his fleet from the Adriatic, but there was one thing which he would not surrender, and that was the Constitution granted by his father to Piedmont.
Impact on Rome
The news that Piedmont was once more laid low reached Rome at the end of March. The first result was
that the Roman Assembly proclaimed a dictatorship of Mazzini, Saffi and Armellini, under the title
of "Triumvirs", with full executive power. Mazzini, however, directed the policy of his two colleagues
as absolutely as the First Consul Bonaparte had directed the policy of Siéyès and Ducos.
On April 25, some eight to ten thousand French troops landed at Civitavecchia, forty miles north-west of Rome.
The orders given to Oudinot by his Government spoke of the Roman Republic as un unpopular usurpation,
which would soon be removed. He was to effect the occupation of the capital as a friend, although if the
inhabitants were so absurd as to object to the entrance of a foreign army within their walls, he must employ
the necessary amount of force.
The Thirtieth of April
Although Garibaldi was not commander-in-chief, he and no other, was recognised as leader.
A quarrel arose between Mazzini and Garibaldi on the question whether or not the victory of April 30
should be turned to full military advantage. Garibaldi wished to follow it up and
drive the retreating French into the sea. Mazzini hoped to propitiate the one country whose friendship
might yet save the State, and preferred to turn the Roman armies from further pursuit of the French to the
more congenial task of expelling the Neapolitan and Austrian invaders.
On May 31, the day when Garibaldi re-entered Rome, De Lesseps signed with the Triumvirs terms of agreement, according to which
the French were to protect Rome and its environs against Austria and Naples and all the world, but were to take up their own quarters
outside the city. In signing terms so entirely averse from the spirit and intentions of those whom he represented, De Lesseps had
sense enough to append a clause which provided that the treaty needed ratification by the French Republic.
But the home Government had already thrown off the mask, and had despatched a message putting an end to his mission.
For Oudinot's reinforcement had come to hand. The French army was again camped within a mile or two
of Rome, within striking distance of the Italian outposts. Twenty thousand men were on the spot, together
with six batteries of artillery; and 10,000 more, together with rest of the siege train and engineers, would arrive at fixed dates during the month; on June 1, Oudinot gave notice to the Romans that the truce was at an end.
In his letter of denunciation of the armistice Oudinot had written that, in order to give the French residents
time to leave Rome, he would not resume attacking the city until Monday, the 4th of June. Notwithstanding this, on Sunday morning at dawn a French column
attacked the Roman positions at Villa Pamfili. They blew a breach in the boundary wall and the French infantry poured over the ruin, and as the morning twilight came on, spread in wave after wave of men through the silent pine-woods that occupied the southern part of the Pamfili grounds. Meanwhile another division made its way in from the west side.
The 400 Italians were sleeping with perfect confidence in Oudinot's promise not to attack till Monday and they were soon surrounded and overpowered by superior numbers. Many escaped to the Convent of San Pancrazio and the Villa Corsini, which stood within the Pamfili enclosure, but five or six hundred yards nearer to Rome.
At about half-past five Garibaldi and his Legion arrived at the Porta San Pancrazio. As he rode through the
gateway he saw, opposite him, the Villa Corsini on its hill top, some 400 paces distant, on the site where the memorial arch stands
to-day. That house, he knew, must be retaken, or the fall of the city was only a matter of time. No price
would be too dear for it - and the price was likely to dear enough. Above the neighbouring vineyards and villas,
it rose high on the skyline, exposing its massive stone-work square to all the winds of heaven, whence it was often called the
"Casa dei Quattro Venti", the House of the Four Winds. It was four stories high, with an ornamental parapet on the top.
Garibaldi seized the opportunity to launch another attack, headed by Masina's forty lancers
in the capacity of dragoons, armed with muskets. The horsemen raced through the garden gate and up the slope and, amid frantic cheers from the Italians crowding the battlements of Rome, followed Masina in his last
wild gallop up the steps of the Corsini.
And now another wave of men came rolling up from the gate of Rome. The spectacle of Masina charging up the
steps, the capture of the Corsini, and the evident arrival of the final crisis of the day, had been too much for the
discipline of the watchers on the walls. A maddening enthusiasm, akin to panic, although its opposite,
seized the crowd of citizens, artists, gunners, and the infantry of the spent regiments; flooding through
the Porta San Pancrazio they swept along the road to the villa in a dense mass. When the mob reached the esplanade
of the ruined Corsini, they joined in the hasty preparations for the defence. The unregimented men,
who showed much goodwill and promptness, were got into some kind of order, and made to lie down among the brushwood,
awaiting the French attack from the Pamfili. Oudinot's well-arrayed army, regiment behind regiment,
could be seen coming forward through the pine trees, which were throwing long shadows in the
evening light. The defence was well maintained for a short while, and the French lost severely in their advance;
but they pressed on with ever fresh men and finally reached the crown of the hill. The Italians fell back,
still firing, from the Villa Corsini, which had proved, not impregnable, but untenable.
The Siege of Rome
The heroism shown by the Italians on the third of June was no spasmodic outburst of rage on
the part of a race incapable of sustained valour. For nearly a month to come the regiments which had been
decimated in the attacks on the Villa remained at the front, under fire every day and during many nights,
exhausted in nerve and muscle by the unrelieved strain of siege and bombardment, repeatedly
engaged in the fiercest hand-to-hand fighting, losing, one by one, the remainder of their officers, but still
maintaining positions which, according to the ordinary maxims of the military art,
had been rendered untenable by the erection of French batteries in front of the Corsini.
The French army, rapidly increased to 25,000, and, towards the end of the month, to 30,000 men, was supported
by a train of siege guns and a fine corps of engineers. The Italian artillery extorted the praise of their
enemies by their astonishing courage and the accuracy of their fire.
When the French bombardment began, the Savorelli gradually crumbled beneath the cannon-balls;
it had been riddled through and through before the staff, on June 21, thought of moving elsewhere.
Garibaldi constantly went the rounds, visiting the places where the
fire was hottest, and restoring the enthusiasm of the defenders, now by a word of
personal sympathy, now standing like a statue above his prostrate companions while a shell
was bursting in their midst. He seemed to disregard death as a weak thing that he knew
by old experience had no power to touch the man of destiny before his hour. That sentiment was
now deeply implanted among his best men. Their hearts beat high, but not with hope.
The Italians feared that if the French pressed on at once in force they might carry the
Savorelli and San Pietro in Montorio before daylight, and so finish the siege. Garibaldi saw the
danger and, instead of attempting the impossible recapture of the lost positions, he devoted
himself to fortifying and manning a second line of defence along the old Imperial wall of
Aurelian, and when day dawned the new position was strongly occupied, and the fear of a capture
of the Janiculum by a coup de main was at an end.
The Fall of Rome
The end was now at hand. The French artillery were victors in the duel which both sides had waged
so gallantly for more than a week past.
The principal efforts of the French on the morning of June 30 were directed to make the Spada
untenable; and within its walls the tragedy of Manara and his
Lombard regiment was fulfilled. The last scene in the little villa must always be described
in the words of Emilio Dandolo, who was taking his part in the defence:
A gigantic statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi at the top of the Janiculum celebrates the 1849 defence of Rome.
Walls of Pope Urban VIII: they were restored by Pius IX who put a papal emblem with the year
1849 on the parts which were rebuilt, which are also identified by white stones marking the
limits of the breaches.