All images © by Roberto Piperno, owner of the domain. Write to email@example.com. Text edited by Rosamie Moore.
Page revised in August 2010.
S. Ivo dei Brittoni (Book
C2) (Day 4) (View C5) (Rione Campo Marzio)
In this page:
The plate by Giuseppe Vasi
S. Ivo dei Brittoni
Via di Ripetta
S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni
S. Maria in Porta Paradisi (and rear entrance to S. Giacomo in Augusta)
della Divina Provvidenza
The Plate (No. 107)
Giuseppe Vasi dedicated his sixth book of views of ancient and modern Rome to the parish churches; some of them had an imposing appearance
(i.e. S. Maria in Campitelli),
others had a fascinating history (i.e. S. Agnese fuori le Mura);
when the parish church was uninteresting, Vasi utilized it to show something else; he did so in this etching where S. Ivo dei Brittoni is the excuse for showing Via di Ripetta, a street opened by
Pope Leo X to link Porta del Popolo, the main entrance to Rome, with the centre of the city.
The view is taken from the green dot in the small 1748 map here below.
In the description below the plate Vasi made reference to: 1) Strada di Ripetta;
2) Palazzo Cardelli; 3) Palazzo Borghese per la famiglia; 4) Obelisk in Piazza del Popolo;
5) Porto di Ripetta; 6) S. Ivo dei Brittoni;
7) Collegio Clementino.
3), 4), 5) and 7) are shown in detail in other pages. The small map does not show the location of the obelisk, but it shows also 8) S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni;
9) S. Rocco; 10) S. Maria in Porta Paradisi; 11) Conservatorio della Divina Provvidenza.
The view in August 2010: (left) the modern building at the end of the small street on the left has replaced Collegio Clementino;
(right) the white building is the modern museum which houses Ara Pacis Augustae;
the building with the blue European flag is the rear section of Palazzo Borghese
The small houses at the centre of the etching have been replaced by a larger building, Collegio Clementino
no longer exists, S. Ivo dei Brittoni has been relocated and Porto di Ripetta is lost; notwithstanding all these changes the view of Via di Ripetta
is still similar to that shown in the etching.
S. Ivo dei Brittoni
New S. Ivo dei Brittoni: (left) fašade; (right-above) detail of the 1748 map showing the church (No 504) and the same map "adjusted" to
reflect its current location; (right-below) Della Robbia tondo (previously inside the old church) between two XIXth century additions
In 1455 Cardinal Alain de CoŰtivy de Taillebourg obtained the assignment of a very small church for the inhabitants of Brittany living in Rome; the dedication of the church was changed from S. Andrea de' Marmorari to S. Ivo dei Brittoni (St. Ives was born and lived in Brittany) and the building was renovated during the XVIth century (click here for a list of national churches in Rome).
The Duchy of Brittany was a feudal state in today's north-western France; the dukes tried to retain their independence in the long conflict between England and France, but eventually in 1491 Duchess Anne of Brittany was forced to marry King Charles VIII of France;
the personal union between the two states ended in 1532 when the Duchy was absorbed into the Kingdom of France. In 1582 the brotherhood in charge of S. Ivo dei Brittoni was merged with that of S. Luigi dei Francesi, but the church retained its reference to Brittany.
In 1878 S. Ivo dei Brittoni was pulled down and rebuilt in a slightly different location by Luca Carimini, who designed an early Renaissance fašade; unfortunately he used a grey stone, typical of many Florentine monuments, but which in this case deteriorated rapidly, so that the reliefs at the sides of the portal are worn out.
Palazzo Cardelli and (inset) detail of the cornice showing the heraldic symbols of the family: Cardelli means small thistles
The construction of Palazzo Cardelli started in 1516 when Jacopo Cardelli, a close friend of Cardinal Raffaele Riario, nephew of
Pope Sixtus IV, bought some small houses to build a family palace for his four sons. The current building, where the Cardelli still live, is the result of five centuries of
additions and modifications; the fašade was designed by Francesco da Volterra towards the end of the XVIth century.
(left) Section of Via di Ripetta starting from the former
harbour; the image shows how S. Rocco and S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni were isolated in the 1930s; (right) Fontana della Botte, a fountain which was located along the street in a building adjoining S. Rocco
Via di Ripetta
Via Leonina was opened by Pope Leo X to promote the development of the area
between the river and Via del Corso and to facilitate the access of pilgrims to the centre of Rome during the forthcoming 1525 Jubilee Year; a tax was levied on the many prostitutes who lived near Porto di Ripetta; the new street
increased the value of Palazzo Medici Lante and Palazzo Madama which were located at its beginning and belonged to the pope's family.
The Romans soon changed the name of the street; its initial section became known as Via della Scrofa, after a small fountain portraying a sow (It. scrofa) near
Convento degli Agostiniani, while that reaching Piazza del Popolo was named after Porto di Ripetta.
Today a modern portico between S. Girolamo and S. Rocco houses
Fontana della Botte (cask of wine), a fountain which was built in 1774 during the pontificate of
Pope Clement XIV; it was paid for by the many innkeepers who had their trade in the neighbourhood.
(left) Fašade; (centre/right) details of the decoration showing the heraldic symbols of Pope Sixtus V (see also the image used as background for this page)
The church is today known as S. Girolamo dei Croati and it is the national church of Croatia in Rome; in the XIVth century Schiavonia was the name given to a region which today is shared among Croatia, Serbia and Hungary;
when it was invaded by the Ottomans some of its inhabitants escaped and a group of refugees settled near Porto di Ripetta; they were assigned a small church which was dedicated to St. Jerome who was born in that part of Europe.
In 1570 Cardinal Felice Peretti was appointed titular cardinal of the church;
when he was elected Pope Sixtus V he commissioned its total reconstruction which was completed by 1589;
the fašade was designed by Martino Longhi.
(left) S. Rocco; (centre/right) 1823 marble panel recording the worst floods of the Tiber; the detail shows that of 1598 which destroyed Ponte Rotto and another one in 1530
In 1477-79 a bubonic plague spread throughout Italy and caused an increased devotion to St. Roch, a XIVth century French saint who was specially invoked against this disease; in 1499 Pope Alexander VI endorsed a brotherhood which was aimed at assisting the persons infected with the plague;
a hospital and a church dedicated to St. Roch were completed by 1503 (you may wish to see the latter in a 1588 Guide to Rome).
The fašade was redesigned by Luigi Valadier in 1834; the activity of the hospital was supported by the guilds of the innkeepers and boatmen of Porto di Ripetta.
Poster and standards for a celebration of St. Roch showing the traditional iconography of the saint. He is identified by a sore on his thigh and by a dog bringing him a loaf of bread
Maria in Porta
(left) Fašade; (centre) statue attributed to Sansovino and 1523 inscription making reference to pestilence; (right-above) detail of a capital; (right-below) alms box
In 1494 a new disease spread throughout Italy; it was called male gallico or mal francese because it was associated with the passage of the French army of King Charles VIII en
route to Naples (the French called it mal de Naples); eventually
in 1530 Italian physician Girolamo Fracastoro called it syphilis, after the main character of a poem he wrote: Syphilus, a shepherd boy of Hispaniola who was punished for his misdeeds with that disease.
Fašade of the northern ward of Spedale di S. Giacomo in Augusta
In order to cope with the epidemic Pope Leo X enlarged Spedale di S. Giacomo in Augusta, a XIVth century hospital along Via del Corso; its two long wards reached Via di Ripetta where a small church was built.
Because it was located near the mortuary which was called Paradiso, the church was called S. Maria Portae Paradisi; its fašade was designed by Antonio da Sangallo.
The entrance to the northern ward was given the shape of a church fašade
by Francesco da Volterra in the second half of the XVIth century (you may wish to see it in a 1588 Guide to Rome).
(left) Fašade along Via di Ripetta; (centre) window of Cappella di S. Maria del Rosario; (right) the obelisk in Piazza del Popolo seen from Via di Ripetta
Conservatorio della Divina Provvidenza was one of the many institutions of XVIIIth century Rome which
cared for women in danger; the huge building near the end of
Via di Ripetta has the appearance of a prison and probably the life of the unmarried women who lived inside its walls was not
very different from that of the inmates of the female prison at Ospizio di S. Michele. The only decorative element of the fašade is a window which gave light to an internal chapel.
Currently the building houses a luxury residence for short stays and the chapel is used for business meetings.
The buildings in the final section of Via di Ripetta were all redesigned in the XIXth century.
Excerpts from Giuseppe Vasi 1761 Itinerary related to this page:
Strada di Ripetta
Accanto alla chiesa di s. Maria de' Miracoli sý apre la sopraddetta strada, e seguita di retta linea a
fianco del Tevere, e per˛ in essa si fa lo scarico della legna da lavorare, e da ardere.
Si disse prima questa contrada de' Schiavoni, perchŔ caduto nell'an. 1453. l'Imperio Orientale in
mano de' Turchi, molti di quella nazione per non stare sotto la tirannide di essi,
quivi vennero ad abitare: ora per˛ prende il nome dal Porto, che in questa strada corrisponde.
Conservatorio della divina Provvidenza
Dopo il palazzo del March. Capponi siegue a destra il conservatorio per le povere donzelle orfane, che
per la cappella dedicata all'Arcangelo s. Michele, di questo portano ancora il nome: ma il proprio loro
nome Ŕ della divina Provvidenza, perchŔ vivono coll'industrie delle proprie mani, e coll'elemosine
Chiesa di S. Maria in Porta Paradisi
Piccola, ma nobile Ŕ questa cappella o chiesa, che vogliam dire; dicevasi anticamente in Augusta per il
celebre mausoleo di quell'Eroe, che stava qui vicino. Fu fatta di nuovo l'anno 1628. per un legato di
Matteo Caccia medico dello spedale degl'Incurabili, a cui Ŕ unita; ed Ŕ ornata con marmi, pitture e
bassirilievi di marmo. Quello nell'altare a mano destra Ŕ di Gio. Francesco de' Rossi; l'altro incontro,
ed il deposto del suddetto medico sono di Cosimo Fancelli; e quelle sull'altare di mezzo sono di
Francesco Brunetti Bolognese; e le pitture nella cupola di Pietro Paolo Baldini; le altre poi di Lorenzo
Chiesa e spedale di S. Rocco
Da una confraternita di barcaroli, osti, ed altri consimili impieghi, fu eretta a tre navate questa magnifica
chiesa l'anno 1657. col disegno di Gio. Antonio de' Rossi ed Ŕ ornata di marmi e di pitture. Il quadro nella
seconda cappella a destra Ŕ di Baciccio Gauli; le pitture nella cappella della ss. Vergine sono del
Carosi; il s. Rocco nell'altare maggiore di Giacinto Brandi, il s. Martino a cavallo, di Bernardo da
Formello; il s. Antonio di Padova Ŕ di Gregorio Calabrese, e le pitture nella cupoletta e lunette sono
di Francesco Rosa.
╚ unito a questa chiesa lo spedale per li poveri della confraternita, ed ancora per le povere donne, che
non avessero in casa loro comodo di partorire.
Chiesa di s. Girolamo delli Schiavoni
Era quivi una piccola chiesa dedicata a santa Marina: ma poi da un eremita Schiavone fu dedicata al
s. Dottore, e dipoi venendo in Roma, come dicemmo, quei Cristiani fuggiti da quella provincia per la
tirannia de' Turchi, eressero appresso la chiesa uno spedale. Quindi Sisto V. riedific˛ la chiesa col
disegno di Martin Lunghi il vecchio, la fece collegiata, e la orn˛ di pitture diverse. Il quadro nella
cappella a destra Ŕ di Giuseppe del Bastardo, quello nella terza di Benigno Vangolini, le pitture
nell'altare maggiore sono di Antonio Viviano, e di Andrea d'Ancona; quelle per˛ della volta sono
di Paris Nogari. Il s. Girolamo nella cappella, che siegue, ed il Cristo morto nell'altra, sono del suddetto
Bastardo; le pitture a fresco sono per˛ del suddetto Andrea d'Ancona, il quale fece ancora la
nativitÓ del Signore, ed il ss. Crocifisso nell'ultima si crede, che sia di Antonio Caracci.
Chiesa di s. Ivone
Conserva questa chiesa l'antica forma di tre navate con colonne di granito egizio, ed era prima
dedicata a s. Andrea Apostolo; ma essendo nell'anno 1456. conceduta ad una confraternita di
Britoni, la dedicarono al Santo loro protettore, ed ora Ŕ unita alla chiesa di s. Luigi de' Francesi.
Il pavimento di questa essendo pi¨ basso della strada, dimostra quanto sia alzato il piano di Roma,
dopo la fondazione della medesima, per causa dell'inondazioni del Tevere.
Next plate in Book 6: S. Simeone Profeta
Next step in Day 4 itinerary: Porto
Next step in your tour of Rione Campo Marzio: S. Antonio de' Portoghesi