All images © by Roberto Piperno, owner of the domain. Write to firstname.lastname@example.org. Text edited by Rosamie Moore.
Page revised in November 2010.
Palazzo Corsini (Book
D3) (Day 6) (View D7)
In this page:
The plate by Giuseppe Vasi
S. Giacomo alla Lungara
Chiesa e Conservatorio della SS. Croce
Regina Coeli (and S. Teresa del Bambin Gesù)
S. Maria della Visitazione (S. Francesco di Sales)
Palazzo Salviati (and SS. Leonardo e Romualdo)
The Plate (No. 72)
When in 1754 Giuseppe Vasi published this view of Palazzo Corsini the building had just been redesigned by Ferdinando Fuga for Cardinal Neri Corsini Jr. Vasi was on friendly terms with the cardinal who supported him in the early phase of his career and to whom in 1759 he dedicated his ninth book of views of Ancient and Modern Rome.
The view of Palazzo Corsini follows that covering Palazzo Sacchetti sulla Strada Giulia;
the two buildings are different in style and size, but they are both located at the beginning of long streets
which were opened by Pope Julius II to facilitate the access of pilgrims to (Nuovo) S. Pietro;
in the case of Via della Lungara (which is shown in this plate) the decision was taken also to improve the hygienic
conditions of those who lived on the right bank of the Tiber between the Vatican and
Trastevere, a neighbourhood which in summer was plagued by malaria and in autumn was at risk of being flooded (for this reason the nunneries of SS. Croce and S. Giacomo were built at the top of a flight of steps).
The view is taken from the green dot in the small 1748 map here below. In the description below the plate Vasi made reference to: 1) Casino Farnese;
2) S. Giacomo; 3) Porta S. Spirito;
4) Monastero di Regina Coeli; 5) Monastero delle Scalette (della SS. Croce). 1) and 3) are shown in another page.
The small map shows also 6) Palazzo Corsini; 7) Monastero di S. Giuseppe; 8) Palazzo Salviati; 9) Villa Alibert; 10) S. Maria della Visitazione.
(left) The view in March 2010; (right) view of Via della Lungara from Monastero della SS. Croce (left) and S. Giacomo (right) towards Porta S. Spirito and the bell tower of S. Spirito in Sassia
Between 1875 and 1900 all the buildings on the right side of Via della Lungara after S. Giacomo were pulled down to make room for a modern road (lungotevere) at the level of the high walls which were built to prevent floods; the buildings on the left side of the street have not been affected by major changes with the exception of Monastero di Regina Coeli which in 1881 was pulled down and replaced by a prison.
Detail of the façade
The palace was originally built by the Riario, a family linked to Pope Sixtus IV
(Paolo Riario married Bianca Della Rovere, sister of the pope); Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the founder of Palazzo della Cancelleria,
bought the piece of land outside
Porta Settimiana, where, after the opening of Via della Lungara, a palace having approximately half the size of Palazzo Corsini
was built. The property included a very large garden which reached the top of the Janiculum, where a small casino was built by the end of the XVIth century on approximately the site of the modern monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi.
(left) One of the two courtyards; (right) passage leading to Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica a Palazzo Corsini
In 1659 the Riario heirs rented the palace to Queen Christina of Sweden who in 1655 embraced Catholicism and came to live in Rome; she lived in the palace until her death in 1689; she was fond of theatre and literature and she hosted the meetings of several academies including that of the Arcadi.
(left) Railing separating the private part of the garden from the public one; (right) detail of the pillars
In 1736 the property was sold to Cardinal Neri Corsini Jr, nephew of Pope Clement XII, who commissioned a major enlargement of the palace to properly display the family
collection of works of art and the large personal library of his uncle; the peculiar aspect of this library is that it included books which were regarded as having heretic content and therefore
were included in the List of Prohibited Books; in 1754 Cardinal Corsini opened the library to the public; his testamentary clauses prevented his heirs from selling the works of art or the library; they were donated to the Italian State in 1883 when the palace was sold;
the library was incorporated into that of Accademia dei Lincei, while the works of art (mainly XVIIIth century paintings) can be seen at Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica a Palazzo Corsini.
Cardinal Corsini was very liberal in giving access to the gardens of his palace;
however an elaborate railing designed by Fuga separated the section of the garden near the palace from the rest. Vasi developed the idea of drawing his 1765 Grand View of Rome by visiting the casino at the top of the hill: in his view he showed with great evidence the rear side of the palace and its gardens.
Palazzo Corsini in the 1765 Grand View of Rome
Giacomo alla Lungara
(left) Façade; (centre/right) details of its decoration, one of which shows a bee, the Barberini's heraldic symbol
When Pope Julius II opened Via della Lungara he had grand ideas about the development of modern Rome: the new street should have reached Porto di Ripa Grande where pilgrims coming by ship from southern Italy were expected to land in great numbers; things went differently: the construction of the new basilica lasted for a century, the Reformation deprived the Roman Church of revenues and pilgrims, the 1527 Sack of Rome halved the population of the city and Ottoman corsairs greatly threatened navigation along the Italian shores.
Via della Lungara was developed only at the beginning of the XVIIth century with the construction of a series of charitable institutions related to the female world: malmaritate (married women deserted by their husbands), pentite (former prostitutes), pericolanti (women in danger), condannate (former convicts) and orphans lived a sorrowful life behind their bars.
S. Giacomo alla Lungara (or in Settimiano) was a medieval church (it retains a XIIIth century small bell tower in the back)
which in 1620 was assigned to the Franciscan order; thanks to the support of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, brother of
Pope Urban VIII, the church was redesigned by Luigi Arrigucci and next to it a small nunnery was built for the prostitutes of S. Maria Maddalena delle Convertite who accepted taking strict vows of seclusion; the nunnery was pulled down in 1887 and after a period of abandonment the church was assigned to the friars of nearby S. Dorotea; its interior contains an interesting monument designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
e Conservatorio della
(left) Entrance from Via della Lungara; (right) courtyard
Monastero della SS. Croce was founded in 1615 by the Discalced Carmelites for the penitenti (women who wanted to expiate their sins by conducting a life of penance) and for the malmaritate;
in 1838 the institution was assigned to French nuns, called del Buon Pastore (Good Shepherd); in 1854 the building was enlarged by
Pope Pius IX; Rev. Jeremiah Donovan, a contemporary writer of a Guide to Rome, so described the aim of the
institution: it has the double purpose of giving protection to female innocence, and shelter to female misfortune.
The convent also affords a temporary asylum to married victims of seduction or jealousy, occasionally sent here by the Ecclesiastical authorities,
for their protection or reformation.
The building housed a female youth prioson until 1970; in recent years it was assigned to feminist activists who occupied Palazzo delle Governo Vecchio for years; their website - external link has images of the premises and of the activities now carried in that site of penance.
View from Villa Lante
This nunnery was founded in 1643 by Anna Colonna, wife of Taddeo Barberini, a nephew of Pope Urban VIII; it became known as Regina Coeli
because its inmates repeated that hymn at four hour intervals, on the signal given by the convent bell;
Regina Coeli (Queen of Heaven) is one of the four Marian antiphons sung in honour of the Virgin Mary.
(left) "Wolf's throat" windows; (centre) entrance for relatives; (right) S. Teresa del Bambin Gesù (at the end of the street: S. Giacomo)
In 1873 it was decided to build on the site of the nunnery a modern and large prison to replace Carceri Nuove
which was located in Via Giulia, almost opposite the new building. The church was pulled down while parts of the nunnery were incorporated into the
prison which continues to be known as Regina Coeli although its inmates are not versed in Marian antiphons; the bronze bust of Anna Colonna by the school of Bernini which decorated her tomb in the church is now at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery of Buffalo.
In the past the
wives of the inmates used to go near Villa Lante
from where they shouted family news to their husbands who could not see them because the windows of the cells are covered by panels
which do not allow viewing outside.
In 1973 a new large prison was completed near Ponte Mammolo, but Regina Coeli continues to be utilized for those inmates who have pending trials and in general for those not serving long sentences.
In 1909 the Carmelites who lived at Regina Coeli returned near to their old nunnery; the church of their new convent was completed in 1925 and it was
dedicated to St. Thérèse of Lisieux, a Carmelite nun who was canonized in that year; it is located at the end of a street off Via della Lungara and opposite Sacro Cuore di Gesù.
S. Maria della
(left) Façade (modern) and side view; (right) details of the decoration
S. Maria della Visitazione was a nunnery built in 1669 during the pontificate of Pope Clement IX
for the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary which was founded in 1610 by St. Jane Frances of Chantal; the nuns of this order are also known as Salesian Sisters and their church had a second dedication to St. Francis de Sales.
In 1803 the nunnery was assigned to the Third Order of Servites; it was located behind that of Regina Coeli and in 1884 it was turned into a female prison; its small church was designed by Giovanni Battista Contini and it is included in the security area surrounding the prison, although the female section is no longer operating.
Count Giacomo d'Alibert (1626-1713) is known for having opened the first public
musical theatre of Rome at Tordinona. The initiative was successful and in 1718 d'Alibert's son built a new
theatre near Piazza di Spagna. By marrying Maria Vittoria Cenci, Count d'Alibert acquired a villa near Via della Lungara
which included an elegant, but very small casino, almost a theatrical backdrop for the garden;
the width of the central part of the building is such that there is space for just one row of rooms.
(left) Last section of Via della Lungara; (centre) detail of the friary; (right) S. Giuseppe
Congregazione dei Pii Operai (Pious Workers) was founded in Naples at the beginning of the XVIIth century with the aim of promoting the
knowledge of the Gospel in the rural parts of the country;
during the XVIIIth century the popes appreciated the efforts of the congregation, especially at a time when Enlightenment writers criticized the
level of superstition which existed in many Italian villages.
The congregation was always a small one and its members lived in the
premises of various churches of Rione Monti, until they were able to build a church and a friary in Via della Lungara.
The church is a work by Ludovico
Rusconi Sassi (1732) whilst the friary was designed by Francesco Fiori and it was completed in 1764.
In 1943, when the congregation was limited to just one member it was merged with Catechisti Rurali, a congregation having the same aim; the new institution is called Pii Operai Catechisti Rurali and its Roman members continue to live in Via dell Lungara.
View from the opposite side of the river near S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini; Salita di S. Onofrio is located to the right of the building
Cardinal Giovanni Salviati was a nephew of Pope Leo X; in 1552 he bought a house with a large garden at the northern end of Via della Lungara; at his death the property passed to his brother Bernardo who commissioned Nanni di Baccio Bigio, a Florentine architect, the construction of a Renaissance palace; after the death of Bernardo (who was appointed cardinal in 1561, after a life spent as a military commander) in 1568 the palace was inherited by Antonio Maria, a third
Salviati cardinal who is remembered for having enlarged Spedale di S. Giacomo in Augusta.
(left) Entrance to the former Botanical Garden; (centre) Salviati gardens; (right) portal of the gardens leading to Villa d'Alibert
The small medieval church of SS. Leonardo e Romualdo stood opposite Palazzo Salviati; it was renovated by Ludovico Gregorini at the beginning of the XVIIIth century; in 1863 the church was pulled down to make room for the supporting pillar of an iron bridge which in turn was demolished in 1942 when it was replaced by Ponte Principe Amedeo di Savoia; the lost church is clearly visible in a detail of the Grand View of Rome (no. 301).
In 1820 the gardens of Palazzo Salviati were chosen as the site for the Botanical Garden of Rome; Pope Gregory XVI
in 1833 opened a direct access to them which was decorated with copies of ancient Egyptian lions; Donovan's Guide to Rome says that from Easter to the Feast of Sts. Peter and Paul (June 29), twenty gratuitous public lectures were delivered by the professor of Practical Botany of la Sapienza; in 1883 the Botanical Garden was relocated to the larger gardens of Villa Corsini.
A Carabinieri Band concert
In 1840 Palazzo Salviati was bought by the Papal Government and it housed the Urban Archives; after having been a military tribunal and a hotel the palace
now belongs to
Arma dei Carabinieri, a branch of the Italian armed forces in charge of policing; on special occasions the courtyard of Palazzo Salviati houses concerts of the Carabinieri Band - external link.
Questo magnifico palazzo già de' Riarj nipoti di Sisto IV. fu abitato alla Regina di Svezia, quando venne
a Roma per abjurare l'eresia, che aveva professata. Ma dipoi comprato dal Card. Neri Corsini nipote di
Papa Clemente XII. fu rinnovato, e cresciuto molto più della metà dalla parte verso ponente con disegno
del Cav. Fuga. Fra gli altri ornamenti, che lo rendono cospicuo, uno è la galleria ornata di quadri, quasi
di tutti gli autori celebri; l'altro è la Biblioteca ricca di libri e manoscritti rari, con una prodigiosa raccolta
delle più famose stampe di uomini eccellenti, legate nobilmente in 400. volumi, e il terzo è la
ornata di fontane, di lunghi viali, e boschi altissimi, con un ameno teatro con portici costruiti tutti di
verdure, in cui si tengono le virtuose radunanze degli Accademici Quirini, e sull'alto evvi un magnifico
casino di ritiro, da dove talmente si scopre l'abitato di Roma, con tutte le tue campagne, che di lì appunto
io presi il partito del gran prospetto di Roma, che ho dato alla pubblica luce.
Chiesa e Conservatorio di s. Giacomo
In Septimiana fu detta questa chiesa, dalla vicina porta, e vi stettero per qualche tempo i monaci
Silvestrini: ma nell'anno 1626. sotto Urbano VIII. vi fu stabilito il Conservatorio per le povere donne
levate dal peccato, le quali vogliono dare ad una vita penitente sotto la regola di s. Agostino.
Il s. Giacomo sull' altare maggiore è del Romanelli, e gli altri quadri sono di Francesco Toppa.
Incontro evvi la
Chiesa e Conservatorio della ss. Croce
Nell'anno 1615. fu eretta la chiesa insieme col conservatorio da un religioso Teresiano
coll'elemosine del Duca di Baviera, e di Baldassare Paluzzi nobile Romano, per collocarvi
le povere donne, che renunziate le vanità del mondo, vogliono dare ad una vita penitente
sotto la regola di s. Teresa, ma senza voti, e senza clausura. Segue dopo la
Chiesa e Monastero di Regina Celi
D. Anna Colonna moglie di D. Taddeo Barberini rimasta vedova eresse sulla strada della
lungara la chiesa e Monastero l'anno 1654. e collocandovi una famiglia di religiose
Teresiane, ella si ritirò con esse, e poi piamente vi morì, lasciando erede di molte
entrate, e ricche suppellettili la chiesa, in cui si vede il suo deposito ornato di marmi
con busto di metallo. Il piccolo tabernacolo sull'altare è ricoperto di lapislazzoli, gioje,
statuette, ed altro; il quadro della Presentazione è del Romanelli; del quale è ancora
quello di s. Teresia; la s. Anna però è opera di Fabrizio Chiari. Queste Religiose per
ispeciale ossequio alla ss. Vergine recitano ogni 4. ore l'antifona Regina Coeli ad un
replicato ed artificioso sogno della loro campana, dal che la chiesa ed il monastero ha
preso il nome.
Chiesa di s. Francesco di Sales
Nel vicolo accanto alla chiesa di Regina Celi corrisponde questa piccola, ma devota chiesa,
e monastero, il quale fu fabbricato sotto Clemente IX. per le religiose istituite dal detto
s. Vescovo, e per tale effetto fece venire da Turino le maestre per istabilirvi una comunità
di quell'istituto. Ma essendo poco dopo morto il Pontefice, proseguì l'impresa il Principe
Borghese colla Principessa sua consorte, e fu dedicata la chiesa alla Visitazione di
s. Elisabetta, e però sull'altare maggiore si vede dipinta da Carlo Cesi; il s. Giuseppe
però è di Guido Reni, e la statua di s. Francesco di Sales è di Francesco Moratti. Segue poco dopo la
Chiesa e Convento di s. Giuseppe
I Chierici Pii operarj edificarono questa chiesa, e la loro abitazione l’anno 1734. colle
limosine di Monsig. Carlo Majella Napoletano. Evvi nella chiesa la deposizione dalla
Croce opera di Niccolò Ricciolini, e la s. Anna incontro di Girolamo Pesci.
Perchè troppo lontano darebbe il cammino per andare a passare i ponti, fu fatto quasi
incontro a questa chiesa il secondo passaggio della barchetta, e più oltre evvi la
Chiesa ed Ospiz. di s. Leonardo, e Romualdo
Molto antica e ricca bisogna dire, che sia stata questa piccola chiesa, mentre da
Innocenzo III. fu unita alla Basilica Vaticana. Gregorio XIII. la concedè ai monaci
Camaldolesi riformati di monte Corona, i quali avendo rinnovata la chiesa, vi stabilirono
il loro ospizio. Incontro a questa si vede il magnifico
Dal Card. Bernardo Salviati fu eretto questo palazzo con disegno di Nanni Baccio
Bigio per darvi alloggio ad Errico III. Re di Francia, e fu detto da Corgna per quello,
che vi aveva quella famiglia. Sono ne' suoi appartamenti de' quadri di Leonardo da Vinci,
di Andrea del Sarto, di Paolo Veronese, del Caracci, del Domenichino, di Guido Reni, di
Carlo Maratti, ed altri, ed ancora delle statue antiche di sommo pregio; evvi ancora un
delizioso giardino, al pari dell'appartamento nobile.
Next plate in Book 4: Palazzo Farnese
Next step in Day 6 itinerary: Giardino di Palazzo Corsini